Egypt: Early political history
- Egypt was ruled by Britain from 1882, until it gained independence in 1922.
- In 1928, the Muslim Brotherhood, a significant force in Egyptian politics, was founded by Hassan al-Banna.
- Egypt suffered heavy casualties in the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, leading to a coup in 1952 bringing Muhammad Najib to power.
- In 1956, he was overthrown by the Prime Minister and fellow coup leader Abdel Nasser.
Nationalisation, welfare and Arab unity
- Nasser's objectives were to re-orient Egypt away from the west and his first major move was the nationalization of the Suez Canal in 1956, which led to the Suez crisis.
- This led to an attempted invasion by the French, British and Israelis but was ultimately thwarted by diplomatic intervention by the US.
- This improved Nasser's image among the people in Egypt.
Nasser's rule till 1970
- Nasser also pushed for Arab unity, setting up the United Arab Republic unitary state along with Syria (1958-61).
- He embarked upon an ambitious economic modernization program that improved economic conditions in the 1950s.
- However, these policies began failing in the 1960s and his government began losing popularity.
- He died on 28 September 1970 after hosting an emergency summit of the Arab League in Cairo.
Reorientation toward the West
- President Anwar Sadat came to power in 1970, and began the process of reorienting Egypt toward the west.
- The Suez canal was opened again, and Sadat began an attempt to open up the Egyptian economy.
- He also forged a peace treaty with Israel in 1979.
- He was assassinated by Islamist extremists in 1981 amidst anti-government protests and was succeeded by Hosni Mubarak.
31 years of Emergency
- In light of continuing protests, Hosni Mubarak imposed a state of emergency and used the Egyptian military to quell protests.
- Mubarak's government hampered freedoms of association and expression by imposing new regulations and draconian penalties on violations.
- Parliamentary politics became irrelevant, until 2005 when Mubarak introduced electoral reforms and conducted elections.
- Mubarak won the elections, and imprisoned his competitor and runner up Ayman Nour.
Egypt under Mubarak
- By 2008, Mubarak began mass arrests of the Muslim Brotherhood members, starting with the top leadership, and arresting over 900 members overall.
- In 2011, protests against Mubarak's rule intensified under the Arab spring.
- Mubarak stepped down and handed power to the Army Council in February 2011.
- He was succeeded by the Muslim Brotherhood's Mohammed Morsi, who managed a marginal victory in parliamentary elections.
Revolution and a coup
- The state of emergency imposed after Anwar Sadat's killing was lifted in 2012.
- Morsi began to attempt to consolidate his power, by immunizing himself and his decisions from judicial purview.
- This, coupled with influx of Islamist policies led to mass protests across the country.
- On 3 July 2013, the military removed President Morsi from power in a coup and installed an interim government.
The rise of Sisi
- The military continued to rule Egypt until 2014, and jailed and executed several members of the Muslim Brotherhood.
- In March 2014, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi the head of the Egyptian armed forces that was ruling the country, resigned so he could stand for elections.
- He won the elections in a landslide victory and was sworn in as President of Egypt in June 2014.
Egypt convenes Parliament after three years
11 Jan 2016
- Egypt swore in its first Parliament in almost three years, with a majority of parliamentarians supporting further empowerment of President Fateh al-Sisi.
- The previous Islamist-dominated legislature was dissolved by a court ruling in 2012.
- 596 lawmakers took individual oaths to uphold Egypt's Constitution which was ratified in 2014.
- Ali Abdelaal, a lawyer who helped draft the 2014 constitution has been elected as the speaker.
PC: 'Secretary Kerry Meets With Egyptian Defense Minister al-Sisi' by U.S. Department of State - Licensed under Public Domain via Commons
PC: 'Secretary Kerry Meets With Egyptian President Morsy' by U.S. Department of State - Licensed under Public Domain via Commons