The minister, member of the Rajya Sabha since 2009, was sworn in last year in the environment, forest and climate change department.
The night before his death, he was with PM Narendra Modi, discussing policy issues.
Dave, hailing from Barnagar in Madhya Pradesh, was unmarried.
Environment Minister Anil Madhav Dave dead
Dave had been ill since January
The reason for his death was not immediately known. However, Dave had been weak since January, when he was diagnosed with pneumonia. According to sources, he had never fully recovered.
'This demise is a personal loss', says Modi
"Absolutely shocked by the sudden demise of my friend & a very respected colleague, Environment Minister Anil Madhav Dave ji. My condolences," tweeted Modi.
"He will be remembered as a devoted public servant. He was tremendously passionate towards conserving the environment," he added.
Union Minister Venkaiah Naidu condoled: "Shocked and extremely sad to know the sudden demise of my colleague Sri Anil Madhav Dave."
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