After bowling Australia out for 284, England ended Day 2 on 267/4.
They are closing in on Australia's first innings total.
Credit to Burns, who showed a lot of character to bat the entire day.
He added a second-wicket stand of 132 with Joe Root (57) and then an unbeaten 73-run partnership with Ben Stokes (38*).
Burns labored his way through a 282-ball inning.
After facing flak, Burns delivers at the big stage
Ahead of this Test match, Burns averaged a paltry 22.28 in seven matches.
He also failed against Ireland last week after notching a pair of sixes.
His place in the England line-up was questioned.
Burns finally broke the shackles and showed his worth.
It wasn't an easy outing. He spent 34 minutes in the nineties.
He also took 10 balls from 99 to hundred.
Burns on his maiden Test century
"It is something I have dreamt of. I was on 99 for a while - to get over the line is awesome. I was calm throughout it. I was waiting for a ball to come into my area," said Burns to BBC.
Rory scripts a fabulous tale
Rory Burns - 168th player to register a Test century for Eng and overall the 769th! 168 - Eng 137 - Aus 84 - WI/Ind 76 - NZ 70 - SA 68 - Pak 38 - SL 23 - Zim 21 - Ban 1 - Ire Note: Kepler Wessels did so for two countries - Aus SA!#EngvAus#EngvsAus#Ashes19#Ashes