He also became the joint-fastest to 250 Test scalps at home.
Ashwin played his 42nd Test match at home and equaled former Lankan ace Muttiah Muralitharan (42 Tests).
Rahane smashes fifty, surpasses 4,000 career Test runs
India's vice-captain Ajinkya Rahane amassed his 21st career Test fifty.
This was his third career fifty against Bangladesh in Tests.
He raced to 294 runs against the Tigers.
The senior cricketer also surpassed the 4,000-run mark in Test cricket (4,061).
He became the 16th Indian to register 4,000-plus Test runs.
Rahane went past Murali Vijay (3,982) in terms of career Test runs as well.
Rahane and Mayank amass a special record
Rahane and Mayank shared a 190-run stand for the fourth wicket against Bangladesh. This is now the sixth-highest partnership runs for any wicket in India versus Bangladesh Test matches. It is also the second-highest fourth-wicket stand in an India-Bangladesh Test match.
Mayank surpasses Bradman as he hits second double ton
Mayank surpassed Sir Don Bradman in terms of being the fastest to score two double Test centuries.
The Indian opener took 12 innings to notch two double tons.
Former Aussie great Bradman had taken 13 innings to achieve the mark.
Notably, Mayank is only behind former Indian cricketer Vinod Kambli on the list.
Kambli achieved the record in just five innings.
Mayank goes on to script these records as well
Mayank became the first Indian opener to score a double century against Bangladesh.
He also became only the third Indian batsmen to have scored a double hundred against Bangladesh.
Sachin Tendulkar (248*) and Virat Kohli (204) are the other names.
His 243 is now the highest Test score by an opener.
The 28-year-old went past former South African skipper Graeme Smith's record of 232.
Other crucial feats notched in this Test
Indian captain Virat Kohli (0) registered his 10th career duck in Test cricket.
Pujara notched his 23rd career Test fifty.
All-rounder Jadeja claimed his 14th career Test fifty.
This was the 10th meeting between the two sides in Test cricket.
India have a 8-0 tally with two games being drawn.
Mohammed Shami claimed seven wickets in the match for India.