Pujara, alongside Hanuma Vihari, aren't a part of the Indian Premier League (IPL) 13th edition.
He will feature in the opening game of the season against Yorkshire on April 12 and return to India before the T20 Blast kicks off in the UK.
Pujara will be replaced by Afghanistan's Qais Ahmed as the County's overseas player for the last six games.
I am really excited to represent Gloucestershire: Pujara
"I am really excited to represent Gloucestershire this season," said Pujara after sealing a deal.
"The club has a rich cricketing history and this is a great opportunity to be a part of it and contribute to its success. I cannot wait to get to Bristol, meet my team-mates and score some runs."
Gloucestershire is the fourth English club for Pujara
Gloucestershire will be the fourth English County that Pujara will represent.
He has earlier played for Yorkshire in 2015 and 2018, Derbyshire in 2014 and Nottinghamshire in 2017.
The Indian batsman doesn't boast of the numbers in County though.
He averages around 30 in 36 innings.
In his short stint with Gloucestershire, Pujara will certainly be looking to better the statistics.
Cheteshwar is a player with great temperament: Gloucestershire head coach
Gloucestershire's head coach Richard Dawson said, "Cheteshwar is a player with great temperament who will add international experience to the squad. Adding Pujara to a strong batting line-up gives me great confidence ahead of our opening County championship matches."