The early days of Taiwanese politics
- From 1624-1684, Taiwan was under Dutch rule.
- From 1684-1895, Taiwan was under China's Qing dynasty.
- In 1895, Taiwan was ceded to the Japanese and remained under Japanese rule until the end of World War 2 in 1945.
- From 1945-1949, China and Taiwan were ruled as the Republic of China by the Kuomintang (KMT) government of Chiang-Kai Shek.
The Communist Party rises to power
- In 1949, after weeks of fighting against Mao Zedong, the Kuomintang government fled to Taipei, and established a 'temporary capital' there.
- World powers refused to acknowledge Mao's control over China (PRC) and the Koumintang government's Republic of China (ROC) was considered the official Chinese government.
- Following a series of nuclear tests by the PRC, the UN officially recognized it as China's government in 1971.
Taiwan's identity crisis
Officially, its status as a nation is disputed. However, Taiwan calls itself a sovereign nation and has its own constitution, democratically-elected leaders, and about 300,000 active troops in its armed forces.
One country, two systems
- Relations began to improve in the 1980s and the PRC presented the 'One Country, Two Systems' policy.
- Under this, Taiwan would be given significant autonomy if it accepted Chinese reunification.
- Taiwan rejected this offer outright, but relaxed trade and travel restrictions with the mainland.
- In 1991, Taiwan declared the end of the 'war' with the PRC, that began in 1949.
Transition to democracy
Chiang Ching-kuo, Chiang Kai-shek's son and successor as the President, began to liberalize the political system in the mid-1980s. In 1986, the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) was formed and inaugurated as the first opposition party in the ROC to counter the KMT.
The independence movement and anti-secession laws
- In 2000, the DPP's Chen Shui-bian, a pro-independence politician, was voted to power and was re-elected in 2004.
- This prompted Beijing to issue the anti-secession law, which empowered the PRC to use "non peaceful means" if Taiwan tried to secede.
- In 2008, Ma Ying-jeou of the Koumintang came to power and resumed reconciliation efforts with the mainland in his 2 successive terms as President.
Protests and a new pro-independence President
- Following Ma Ying-jeou's reconciliation policies, many Taiwanese began to grow weary of China's growing influence.
- In 2014, students began the 'Sunflower Movement' protests against the Cross-Straits Service Trade Agreement and dissent against the Koumintang government picked up pace.
- In January 2016, Tsai Ing-wen of the pro-independence Democratic Progressive Party became Taiwan's first female President.
- The outcome raised significant concerns in Beijing.
China vows to disallow Taiwanese independence bids
- Chinese President Xi Jinping vowed to disallow any attempts of Taiwan being "split" from China, offering a strong warning to the island against any moves towards independence.
- Xi made the statements while addressing delegates at the annual meeting of China's national legislature.
- The statements come after a landslide win by Tsai Ing-wen and her pro independence party in Taiwan's presidential and parliamentary elections.
India dismisses China's protest to Taiwanese delegation, calls them 'informal'
- After the presence of a Taiwanese parliamentary delegation in India was not taken kindly by China, the Indian government said that political conclusions shouldn't be drawn from visits by an "informal" group.
- Official spokesperson of the MEA Vikas Swarup described the group comprising of Taiwanese academics and business persons.
- India's reaction followed the Chinese government's diplomatic protest against the same.