Gillespie had achieved the feat on Day 4 of the second Test.
With this knock, the Aussie pacer went on to script several records.
We take you back memory lane and look at this innings.
Gillespie came in as a night-watchman on Day 1 after Australia bundled out Bangladesh for 197.
Matthew Hayden was dismissed just before the close of play and as a result, Gillespie strode out to the middle.
He went on to amass 201* from 425 deliveries, hitting 26 fours and two sixes.
Gillespie shared a 320-run stand for the fourth wicket alongside Michael Hussey (182).
Gillespie and Hussey's 320-run stand is still the highest for any wicket in Test matches between Australia and Bangladesh.
Gillespie is the only double centurion in Australia-Bangladesh Test cricket.
The fast bowler and Hussey helped Australia get to 581/4 declared in the Chattogram Test.
It is still the highest total in Australia-Bangladesh Test cricket.
Gillespie has also registered the highest score by a night-watchman.
Bangladesh were bowled out for 197 on Day 1. Gillespie picked up three scalps, alongside spin duo of Shane Warne and Stuart MacGill.
Australia replied strongly and piled up 581/4.
Besides the heroics of Gillespie and Hussey, Phil Jaques (66) and Ricky Ponting (52) contributed immensely.
In the second innings, Bangladesh scored 304/10.
Warne claimed a fifer.
Meanwhile, today is Jason Gillespie's birthday and the former Aussie star turned 45 years old.
The right-arm pacer thanked fans for the wishes on Twitter.
"Hi everyone- really appreciate all the birthday messages. My apologies if I don't reply to everyone. Means a lot. Stay safe," tweeted Gillespie.
The ICC paid tribute to the bowler as well on the social media site.
In 71 Tests, Gillespie claimed 259 scalps at an average of 26.13. With the bat, he amassed 1,218 runs at 18.73. Besides the double ton, he also registered two fifties.
👕 71 Tests, 97 ODIs, one T20I— ICC (@ICC) April 19, 2020
☝️ 402 international wickets #OnThisDay in 2006, he scored 201* against Bangladesh in Chattogram, which is the highest score by a night-watchman in international cricket 🤯
Happy birthday, @dizzy259 🎂 pic.twitter.com/SCcnorXXyZ
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