China supplies nuclear reactors to Pakistan, contradicts NPT
The Arms Control Association on 15th July, 2016 released a report which assessed progress on non-proliferation. In the report, Beijing was found to have breached a consensus reached at the NPT review conference held in May 2010. This conference was held in the United Nations Headquarters in New York. Beijing violated the consensus by transferring nuclear reactors to Pakistan.
The Non-Proliferation Treaty in an international treaty, the objective of which is to avoid the spread of nuclear weapons technology, encourage peaceful uses of nuclear energy and aim to achieve nuclear disarmament. The treaty opened for signature in 1968 and entered into force in 1970. The NPT comprises of more member countries than any other arms limitation and disarmament agreement.
Member countries of the NPT
91 countries altogether have joined the Non-Proliferation Treaty, which recognises 5 countries as nuclear-weapon states: United States, Russia, United Kingdom, France and China. India, Israel, Pakistan and South Sudan have never joined the NPT.
Progress on Nuclear Disarmament
"Assessing Progress on Nuclear Non-proliferation and Nuclear Disarmament, 2013-2016", evaluates performances of 11 key member countries. 10 globally-recognised non-proliferation, disarmament and nuclear security categories are used for this evaluation. Records of China, France, Russia, UK, USA, India, Israel, Pakistani and North Korea, Iran and Syria were evaluated. The study found that the holistic non-proliferation standards across these countries were inadequate to meet threats.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards inspects and verifies peaceful uses of nuclear materials as a part of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
China's deal with Pakistan
The 2010 NPT review conference declared that while making supply arrangements for transferring nuclear materials and technology, it is necessary for the recipient to accept "IAEA full-scope safeguards and international legally-binding commitments not to acquire nuclear weapons." In the 2013 deal made between China and Pakistan for the Chasma-3 reactor, Islamabad hadn't accepted either of the two requirements.
What the report had to say
"Despite progress on its export controls, China continues to supply Pakistan with nuclear power reactors. Pakistan, which is neither an NPT member nor under full-scope IAEA safeguards, is therefore ineligible to receive such assistance under NSG rules."