India to have 8 vaccines by year-end. Which are they?
India plans to inoculate all its citizens against the coronavirus by the end of this year - a significant development for a nation that has been ravaged by a brutal second wave of the pandemic. A whopping 216 crore doses will be made available and eight different vaccines will be used for the massive drive, a top government official said. Here's more about them.
'Vaccines will be available for all'
"Overall, 216 crore doses of vaccines will be manufactured in India between August and December, for India and for Indians. There should be no doubt that vaccines will be available for all as we move forward," said Dr. VK Paul, NITI Aayog member (Health).
COVAXIN is India's first approved indigenous coronavirus vaccine. It has been developed by the Hyderabad-based firm Bharat Biotech in collaboration with the National Institute of Virology (NIV) and the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). Trial results showed the vaccine has an efficacy of 78 percent. At least 55 crore doses of COVAXIN would be available by December, the government has said.
Covishield is the Indian brand name of the anti-coronavirus vaccine developed by the University of Oxford in partnership with the British-Swedish company AstraZeneca. It is being locally produced by the Pune-based Serum Institute of India. The vaccine has shown to be 63 percent effective in clinical trials. At least 75 crore doses of Covishield will be made available by the end of the year.
It is the latest anti-COVID-19 vaccine to be approved by the top Indian drug regulator. The vaccine has been developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology of the Russian Ministry of Health. It is said to be as much as 91.6 percent effective. The government plans to roll out 15.6 crore doses of the vaccine by December.
Biological E vaccine
Hyderabad-based pharmaceutical firm Biological E Limited (BE) has developed the BECOV2A vaccine. Rather than injecting a whole pathogen, this vaccine contains purified pieces selected for their ability to stimulate a strong immune response. Vaccines of such nature are believed to be safer and relatively affordable. The company has been tasked to produce at least 30 crore doses of the vaccine this year.
Zydus Cadila vaccine
Zydus Cadila, the Ahmedabad-based pharmaceutical company, has developed its plasmid DNA vaccine called ZyCoV-D. Vaccines of this type use genetic material from a disease-causing virus or bacteria in order to trigger an immune response against it. ZyCoV-D is reportedly a three-dose vaccine. Five crore doses of the vaccine are expected to be available by this December.
NVX-CoV2373, branded Covovax, has been developed by the United States-based vaccine maker Novavax and will be made available in India in partnership with the Serum Institute of India. The protein-based anti-coronavirus vaccine has shown an efficacy of 89.3 percent in its Phase three clinical trials conducted in the United Kingdom, the company said. Serum Institute will supply 20 crore doses of Covovax by December.
Gennova vaccine and Intranasal
Gennova: It has been developed by the Pune-based Gennova Biopharmaceuticals Limited. The government said six crore doses of this vaccine will be available by December. Intranasal: It has been prepared by COVAXIN producer Bharat Biotech. It is a nasal vaccine, implying it can be administered through the nose and does not require a needle. 10 crore doses of the vaccine will be rolled out.